Present Perfect Tense: Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh Kalimat, dan Soal

Pengertian Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu aksi atau situasi yang telah dimulai di masa lalu dan masih berlanjut sampai sekarang atau telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu namun efeknya masih berlanjut.

contoh kalimat present perfect tense dan artinya: Is it possible to fall in love with someone you have only met once? (Apakah mungkin jatuh cinta dengan seseorang yang hanya pernah kamu temui sekali?)

contoh kalimat present perfect tense dan artinya

Rumus Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense dibentuk dengan auxiliary verb “have” atau “has”, dan past participle (verb-3). Have digunakan untuk Iyou, dan plural subject seperti: plural pronoun (seperti: they, we), plural noun (seperti: boys, men), dan compound subject dengan kata hubung “and” (seperti: you and I, Tom and Jack); sedangkan has untuk singular subject seperti: third person singular pronoun (seperti: he, she, it) dan singular noun (seperti: Tom, man).

Past participle dibentuk dengan menambahkan -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, atau -ne pada base form berupa regular verb. Pada base form berupa irregular verb, bentuk past participle tidak konsisten.

Lihat:

rumus present perfect tense: has/have + past participle *Has digunakan untuk singular subject, kecuali: I dan you; have untuk I, you, dan plural subject.

rumus present perfect tense

Kalimat negatif dapat langsung dibuat dengan menambahkan “not” setelah have/has, sementara interrogatif dengan menukar posisi S dan have/has.

kalimat positif (+)

S + auxiliary verb (have/has) + past participle (verb-3)

kalimat negatif (-)

S + auxiliary verb (have/has) + not + past participle (verb-3)

kalimat interogatif (?)

auxiliary verb (have/has) + S + past participle (verb-3)

Lihat juga:

Contoh Kalimat Negative – Present Perfect Tense

  1. I have lost a pound in two weeks.
    (Saya telah kehilangan satu pon dalam dua minggu.)

    I haven’t lost a pound in two weeks.
    (Saya tidak kehilangan satu pon dalam dua minggu.)

  2. They have frozen the bank accounts.
    (Mereka telah membekukan rekening-rekening bank tersebut.)

    They haven’t frozen the bank accounts.
    (Mereka belum membekukan rekening-rekening bank tersebut.)

  3. The hurricane has blown itself out.
    (Badai telah surut.)

    The hurricane hasn’t blown itself out.
    (Badai belum surut.)

  4. She has gone to buy them food.
    (Dia telah pergi untuk membelikan mereka makanan.)

    She hasn’t gone to buy them food.
    (Dia tidak pergi untuk membelikan mereka makanan.)

  5. They have visited that museum before.
    (Saya pernah mengunjungi museum itu sebelumnya.)

    They have not visited that museum before.
    (Saya belum pernah mengunjungi museum itu sebelumnya.)

  6. Sarah has read the latest novel.
    (Sarah sudah membaca novel terbaru itu.)

    Sarah hasn’t read the latest novel.
    (Sarah belum membaca novel terbaru itu.)

contoh kalimat negatif present perfect tense: I haven't been to the beach in the last 12 months. (Saya belum ke pantai itu dalam 12 bulan terakhir.)

contoh kalimat negatif present perfect tense

Contoh Kalimat Yes-No Question Present Perfect Tense

  1. I have reached my bandwith limit.
    (Saya telah mencapai batas bandwith.)

    Have I reached my bandwith limit?
    (Apakah saya telah mencapai batas bandwith?)

  2. The doctor has found the cause of your painful joints.
    (Dokter tersebut telah menemukan penyebab nyeri sendi-sendimu?)

    Has the doctor found the cause of your painful joints?
    (Apakah dokter telah menemukan penyebab nyeri sendi-sendimu?)

  3. They have gone to Balikpapan?
    (Mereka telah pergi ke Balikpapan.)

    Have they gone to balikpapan?
    (Apakah mereka telah pergi ke Balikpapan?)

  4. His air conditioners have worked properly.
    (Pendingin udaranya telah bekerja dengan benar.)

    Have his air conditioners worked properly?
    (Apakah pendingin udaranya telah bekerja dengan benar?)

Contoh Short Answer Response Present Perfect Tense

  1. Have I/we destroyed someone’s reputation?
    • Yes, you have.
    • No, you haven’t.
  2. Has she/he/it destroyed someone’s reputation?
    • Yes, she/he/it has.
    • No, she/he/it hasn’t.
  3. Have you destroyed someone’s reputation?
    • Yes, I have.
    • No, I haven’t.
  4. Have they destroyed someone’s reputation?
    • Yes. they have.
    • No, they haven’t.
Contoh yes-no question present perfect tense: Have you been to Cape Town? (Apakah kamu pernah ke Cape Town?)

contoh yes-no question present perfect tense

Time Expressions pada Present Perfect Tense

Berikut beberapa time expression (keterangan waktu) yang dapat digunakan pada present perfect tense.

  • already (sudah)
  • just (baru saja)
  • recently, lately (belum lama ini)
  • ever (pernah)
  • yet (masih)
  • for + period of time up to present: for an hour (selama satu jam), for three days (selama tiga hari), for two weeks (selama dua minggu), for a long time (selama waktu yang lama), for many years (selama bertahun-tahun)
  • since + starting time: since yesterday (sejak kemarin), since 7 am (sejak jam 7 pagi), since February (sejak Februari), since we first met (sejak kita pertama bertemu), since I moved here (sejak saya pindah kesini)

Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense

  • We haven’t seen Dimas recently.
    (Kamu belum melihat Dimas lagi.)
  • Have you ever been to Scotland?
    (Apakah kamu pernah ke Skotlandia?)
  • Adam hasn’t received the document yet.
    (Adam masih belum menerima dokumen tersebut.)
  • We haven’t seen Dimas for two weeks.
    (Kamu tidak melihat Dimas selama dua minggu.)
  • It hasn’t rained since February.
    (Belum turun hujan sejak Februari.)

Fungsi dan Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense

  1. Present perfect tense untuk mengungkapkan kejadian di masa lalu tanpa peduli kapan tepatnya terjadi.

    Contoh Kalimat

    • Can you recommend the most delicious seafood restaurant in this town? Yes, I’ve visited all of them.
      (Dapatkah kamu merekomendasikan restoran seafood paling lezat di kota ini? Ya, saya telah mengunjungi semuanya.)
    • I’ve read this book.
      (Saya sudah membaca buku ini.)
  2. Present perfect tense untuk menunjukkan bahwa suatu aksi terjadi berulang kali dimasa lampau (adverb of frequency).

    Contoh Kalimat

    She has called you three times.
    (Dia sudah meneleponmu tiga kali.)

  3. Tense ini untuk mengungkapkan aktivitas atau situasi yang dimulai pada masa lampau kemudian dilanjutkan sampai sekarang (belum selesai).

    Contoh Kalimat

    • I have lived in Cilegon for 3 months.
      (Saya telah tinggal di Cilegon selama 3 bulan.)
    • She has studied in French since April.
      (Saya telah sekolah di Perancis sejak bulan April.)
    • My brother has worked already/lately/ up to now.
      (Saudaraku sudah bekerja sampai sekarang.)
  4. Present perfect tense untuk membicarakan event yang terjadi belum lama ini. Adverb “recently” dan lately” (= not long ago) dapat digunakan.

    Contoh Kalimat

    • Have you visited any market recently?
      (Apakah kamu mengunjungi suatu pasar baru-baru ini?)
    • Sita hasn’t been too well lately.
      (Sita tidak terlalu sehat belum lama ini.)
  5. Present perfect tense untuk membicarakan event yang baru saja terjadi. Adverb just (= very recently) dapat digunakan.

    Contoh Kalimat

    • I’ve just sent you an email.
      (Saya baru saja mengirimkan kamu email.)
    • The rain’s just stopped.
      (Hujan baru saja berhenti.)
      [the rain’s = the rain has; lihat contraction & apostrophe]

Contoh Soal Present Perfect Tense Pilihan Ganda

rumus kalimat positif, negatif, dan interogatif present perfect tense

rumus kalimat positif, negatif, dan interogatif present perfect tense

Pilihlah salah satu jawaban untuk melengkapi kalimat di bawah ini dengan mengetik a atau b.

  1. I ... read the terms and conditions.

    1. have
    2. has

    Your answer:

  2. The businessman ... offered her three times the value of her property, but she's not interested.

    1. 've
    2. 's

    Your answer:

  3. Have you ever ... the beautiful desert scenery?

    1. see
    2. seen

    Your answer:

  4. ... Mahesa been to New Zealand?

    1. is
    2. has

    Your answer:

  5. My cousin ... as a medical assistant for almost a year.

    1. has worked
    2. have worked

    Your answer:

  1. Someone ... left the letter on your desk.

    1. have
    2. has

    Your answer:

  2. Julie as well as her sister ... used organic products for skin care since January.

    1. have
    2. has

    Your answer:

  3. One of the students ... completed the final exam.

    1. 've just
    2. 's just

    Your answer:

  4. How much have you ... for clothes that you never wear?

    1. spent
    2. spend

    Your answer:

  5. He hasn't ... a bribe for education services, has he?

    1. paid
    2. pay

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

Javascript diperlukan untuk menjalankan quiz ini.

8 Contoh Soal Yes-No Question Present Perfect Tense

Pilihlah yes-no question present perfect tense yang tepat dari kata-kata di bawah ini dengan mengetik a, b, c, atau d.

  1. Alan has read a biography recently.

    1. What Alan has read recently?
    2. What has Alan read recently?

    Your answer:

  2. He has met his old classmates lately.

    1. Whom he has met lately?
    2. Whom has he met lately?

    Your answer:

  3. They have been to the grocery store.

    1. Where have they been?
    2. Where they have been?

    Your answer:

  4. The implementation of the strategic plan has run smoothly.

    1. How has the implementation of the strategic plan run?
    2. How the implementation of the strategic plan has run?

    Your answer:

  5. Our computers have started shutting down randomly because of overheating.

    1. Why our computers have started shutting down randomly?
    2. Why have our computers started shutting down randomly?

    Your answer:

  6. We have found ten solutions so far.

    1. How many solutions have we found so far?
    2. How many have solutions we found so far?

    Your answer:

  7. The cyclist has traveled 43,000 miles up to now.

    1. How far the cyclist has traveled up to now?
    2. How far has the cyclist traveled up to now?

    Your answer:

  8. They have rejected his visa application three times.

    1. How many times have they rejected his visa application?
    2. How many times they have rejected his visa application?

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

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8 Contoh Soal Negative – Present Perfect Tense Pilihan Ganda

Pilihlah negatif  present perfect tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi setiap kalimat di bawah ini dengan menggunakan petunjuk di dalam kurung dengan mengetik a, b, c, atau d.

  1. My apple tree ... (not bear) fruit in years.

    1. hasn't bore
    2. hasn't borne
    3. haven't borne
    4. haven't bore

    Your answer:

  2. We ... (not be) here before.

    1. hasn't been
    2. hasn't be
    3. haven't been
    4. haven't be

    Your answer:

  3. She still ... (not become) a U.S. citizen yet.

    1. hasn't became
    2. haven't became
    3. hasn't become
    4. haven't become

    Your answer:

  4. Tsania's train ... (not arrive) yet.

    1. haven't arrive
    2. hasn't arrive
    3. haven't arrived
    4. hasn't arrived

    Your answer:

  5. They ... (not choose) a football team to support.

    1. haven't chosen
    2. haven't chose
    3. hasn't chosen
    4. hasn't chose

    Your answer:

  1. Donnie ... (not work) well lately.

    1. haven't work
    2. hasn't worked
    3. hasn't work
    4. haven't worked

    Your answer:

  2. I ... (not do) with this issue yet.

    1. haven't did
    2. hasn't done
    3. hasn't did
    4. haven't done

    Your answer:

  3. My sister and I ... (not see) him since his wedding day.

    1. haven't seen
    2. haven't saw
    3. hasn't seen
    4. hasn't saw

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

Javascript diperlukan untuk menjalankan quiz ini.

Lihat juga:

References:

  1. Verb Tenses. http://faculty.washington.edu/marynell/grammar/verbtenses.html.  Accessed on February 18, 2013.
  2. Grammar Handbook: Perfect and Progressive Verb Forms. http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/writers/perfectforms/. Accessed on February 18, 2013.
  3. Summary of Verb Tenses. http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/grammar/tenses.html. Accessed on February 18, 2013.
  4. Sequence of Tenses. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/01/. Accessed on February 18, 2013.
  5. The Present Perfect Tense. http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/rules/presperf.htm. Accessed on October 8, 2018.
  6. Definition of just adverb from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/just_1. Accessed on October 8, 2018.
  7. Definition of recently adverb from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/recently. Accessed on October 8, 2018.
  8. Definition of lately adverb from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/lately. Accessed on October 8, 2018.
  9. Blow Itself out. http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/blow+itself+out. Accessed on May 19, 2016.
  10. How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?. https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_present-perfect_s.htm. Accessed on May 19, 2016.
  11. Present Perfect. https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/ar/english-grammar/verbs/present-tense/present-perfect. Accessed on May 19, 2016.
  12. Question Forms. http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/question-forms. Accessed on March 12, 2016.
  13. Present Perfect – Experience. http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/presperf2a.html. Accessed on March 15, 2016.
  14. Present Perfect Tense Quiz. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_present-perfect_quiz.htm. Accessed on August 20, 2013.
  15. G3: QUESTIONS I – Present Perfect yes/no. http://www.spring.edu/webroom/practice_g3_questions_1.html. Accessed on March 13, 2016.
  16. ‘Ever’ and ‘whenever’. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv82.shtml. Accessed on March 13, 2016.
  17. Recently. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/recently. Accessed on March 13, 2016.
  18. Exercise 2 – Present perfect: negative and interrogative. https://elt.oup.com/student/solutions/elementary/grammar/grammar_10_022e?cc=id&selLanguage=id. Accessed on May 25, 2016.
  19. Present Perfect. http://fog.ccsf.cc.ca.us/~mbibliow/presentperfectnegative3-2.html. Accessed on May 25, 2016.
  20. Already, still or yet?. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/already-still-or-yet. Accessed on May 25, 2016.

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180 thoughts on “Present Perfect Tense: Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh Kalimat, dan Soal

  1. r, cyntia.  

    Kak, apakah sudah ada artikel yang membahas perbedaan nominal sentence dan verbal sentence?

    Omong-omong, terima kasih banyak atas ilmu yang Kakak berikan melalui website ini. Saya tahu website ini sedari saya masih duduk di bangku sekolah dasar hingga kini akan menjalani UTBK untuk mendaftar di kampus idaman. Website Kakak benar-benar membantu dan sepertinya merupakan yang terlengkap hehe. Bahkan, saya sering bolak-balik membaca artikel di sini terlebih lagi tiap teman-teman saya bertanya mengenai suatu materi tentang Bahasa Inggris. Sejauh yang saya baca, Kakak merupakan lulusan teknik, ya? Woah, Kakak keren sekali. Kebetulan saya juga ingin mengambil suatu jurusan di Fakultas Teknik. Semoga kebaikan Kakak selalu terbalas oleh Tuhan YME ✨

  2. Wilma Yulia  

    Halo e, cyntia. Maaf banget ya baru balas 🙁

    Kalau sesuai judul itu (nominal sentence, verbal sentence) belum ada sih artikelnya. Kayaknya penting ya 😀

    Makasih ya udah baca-baca disini, udah lama banget dari SD sampai UTBK. Kalo terlengkap sih ngga ya, banyak banget topik yang belum dibahas haha ini juga suka ngadat nulis waduh, tapi makasih ya feedbacknya, membuat saya semangat lagi 😀
    Iya benar saya lulusan teknik. Semoga lulus kampus idamannya ya jurusan teknik dan enjoy menjalaninya 😀

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