Gerund dan Infinitive: Perbedaan, Kalimat, dan Contoh Soal

Penggunaan Gerund dan Infinitive

Gerund (verb+ing) dan infinitive (to+verb) sama-sama merupakan verbal yang dapat berfungsi sebagai noun. Yang menjadi pertanyaan adalah kapan harus menggunakan gerund dan kapan harus menggunakan infinitive.

  1. subject of sentence

    Keduanya dapat digunakan sebagai subject of a sentence.

    • Walking on the beach may be fun.
    • To walk on the beach may be fun.
  2. subject complement

    Keduanya dapat digunakan sebagai subject complement, namun gerund lebih umum.

    • My goal is winning the prize.
    • My goal is to win the prize.
  3. direct object (object of verb)

    Keduanya dapat digunakan sebagai direct object, namun ada ketentuan dalam penggunaannya. Beberapa verb hanya dapat menggunakan gerund, beberapa menggunakan infinitive, dan beberapa yang lain dapat menggunakan keduanya. Penjelasan lebih lengkap di bawah.

    • The man likes climbing the mountain.
    • The man likes to climb the mountain.
  4. object of preposition

    Gerund umum menjadi object of a preposition. Sedangkan pada infinitive, hanya beberapa preposition, antara lain: except dan but yang kadang-kadang diikuti infinitive.

    • The woman read a book about cooking.
    • You have no other option but to negotiate
      with you manager.

Verb yang Diikuti Gerund/Infinitive

Beberapa verb hanya dapat menggunakan gerund, beberapa menggunakan infinitive, dan beberapa yang lain menggunakan keduanya dengan makna yang sama maupun berbeda. Penjelasannya sebagai berikut.

Diikuti infinitive

tanpa tambahan agent

agree, appear, begin, care, choose, continue, decide, forget, happen, get, hate, learn, hope, like, love, plan, prefer, refuse, seem, start, try, wait

  • She forgot to come.

butuh tambahan agent

advise, allow, choose, get, help, invite, teach, tell

  • I told him to call you.

dapat ditambahkan agent (optional)

ask, beg, expect, need, prepare, promise, want

  • I need to know the correct answers.
  • I need you to know the correct answers.

tanpa “to”

feel, have, hear, help, watch, see

  • She heard you pass the exam.

Diikuti gerund

tanpa tambahan agent

acknowledge, advise, appreaciate, avoid, begin, consider, continue, deny, discuss, dislike, enjoy, finish, forget, hate, (cannot) help, prefer, recommend, regret, remember, start, stop, teach, understand

  • She enjoys dancing.

butuh tambahan agent

hear, watch, see

  • I saw you throwing
    the food.

Diikuti gerund/infinitive

tanpa perbedaan makna

begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start

  • I continue studying.
  • I continue to study.

dengan perbedaan makna

forget, remember, stop

  • She stopped eating chocolate.
    (Dia berhenti makan coklat)
  • She stopped to eat chocolate.
    [Dia berhenti (melakukan kegiatan lain) untuk makan coklat]

10 Contoh Soal Gerund dan Infinitive

Gerund merupakan kata yang dibentuk dari verb (kata kerja) dan akhiran -ing, sedangkan infinitive dibentuk dari particle “to” dan verb. Keduanya sama-sama dapat berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda). Yang menjadi permasalahan adalah kapan harus menggunakan gerund dan kapan harus menggunakan infinitive di dalam suatu kalimat.

Pilihlah kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat di bawah ini dengan mengetik a atau b.

  1. Do you recommend … these books?

    1. reading
    2. to read

    Your answer:

  2. Tasya wishes … her grandparents more often.

    1. visiting
    2. to visit

    Your answer:

  3. Would you mind … this questionnaire?

    1. to fill out
    2. filling out

    Your answer:

  4. My grandfather used … his hummingbirds three times a day.

    1. to feed
    2. feeding

    Your answer:

  5. I watched two lions … in the grass in South Africa.

    1. sleeping
    2. to sleep

    Your answer:

  1. I dislike … money on non-essential items.

    1. spending
    2. to spend

    Your answer:

  2. We promise … in touch with our clients.

    1. to stay
    2. staying

    Your answer:

  3. Some of the students refused … behavior guidelines.

    1. following
    2. to follow

    Your answer:

  4. My mother taught me not … about my academic work.

    1. lying
    2. to lie

    Your answer:

  5. She needs … how to serve healthy food for her family.

    1. knowing
    2. to know

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

Javascript diperlukan untuk menjalankan quiz ini.

Lihat juga:

References:

  1. Infinitives. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/627/03/. Accessed on December 19, 2012.
  2. Gerunds and Infinitives: Their Noun Roles. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/gerunds.htm. Accessed on December 19, 2012.
  3. Verbs That Take Gerund and Infinitive Completers. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/gerund_chart.htm. Accessed on December 19, 2012.
  4. Gerunds and Infinitives. http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/gerinf.htm. Accessed on December 19, 2012.
  5. Gerunds and Infinitives. Some Important Rules. http://www.ctu.edu.vn/centers/cfl/learning/grammar/grammar%20resource/FC_GerundInfinMM1.doc.
  6. Gerunds. http://www.sass.uottawa.ca/writing/kit/grammar-gerunds.pdf.
  7. Gerunds Quiz. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-gerunds_quiz.htm. Accessed on October 14, 2013.
  8. Gerund or Infinitive? Quiz. http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/bl_verbform1.htm. Accessed on October 14, 2013.
  9. Gerunds. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/627/.
  10. Gerunds and Infinitives: Their Noun Roles. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/gerunds.htm. Accessed o October 14, 2013.

91 thoughts on “Gerund dan Infinitive: Perbedaan, Kalimat, dan Contoh Soal

  1. Wilma Yulia  

    Halo Lina,

    Kalo saya lihat di http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/learn, untuk makna to get knowledge or skill, si learn justru diikutinya infinitive… 🙁 nah itu sesuai dengan pengelompokkan di halaman ini.

    Mmm.. she called (me) + infinitive saya pikir infinitive disini sebagai adverbial (of purpose). Lihat: http://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-contoh-kalimat-adverbs-purpose
    Coba aja lihat disini:

    call verb (PHONE)
    A2 [I or T] to use a ​phone to ​talk to someone:
    He called (you) last ​night when you were out.
    She called (me) this ​morning at the ​office and we had a ​brief ​chat.
    http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/call

    Si learn biasa diikuti adverbial, termasuk si adverbial of purpose. Pada adverbial of purpose memang muncul kata “untuk” karena tu adverbial untuk menjawab pertanyaan “why”. Beda kasus dengan learn to cook 😀

  2. putri  

    i just got 80 score.
    taking into consideration the fact that i still confused about it.
    would you like to give me information about link wich give many exercises about grammar?

  3. Iwan  

    Mbak,
    Apakah ada perbedaan arti ketika “help” diikuti oleh infinitive tanpa “to” dan gerund? Maksud saya, kapankah kita sebaiknya memakai “help” yang diikuti infinitive tanpa “to” dan gerund?

    Thanks..

  4. Wilma Yulia  

    Halo Iwan,

    Setelah saya baca-baca lagi ternyata verb “help” rumit juga ya :B

    Help bisa diikuti infinitive atau bare infinitive dengan atau tanpa object sebelumnya tapi tanpa “to” terdengar lebih kurang formal.

    Help is a verb that can be used with or without to and with or without an object before the infinitive. When we use it without an infinitive it sometimes sounds more informal. Compare the following:

    Could you help me to look for my car keys? I can’t find them anywhere.

    Could you help me look for my car keys? I can’t find them anywhere.

    Would you like to help to cook dinner tonight? It’s late and I’m feeling tired.

    Would you like to help cook dinner tonight? It’s late and I’m feeling tired. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv226.shtml

    Kalo untuk menjawab soal biasanya pilih yang lebih formal ya.. kalo perbedaan arti sepertinya lebih detail aja Iwan kalo ada object-nya.

    Contoh di atas ketika help bermakna:

    to make it easier or possible for somebody to do something by doing something for them or by giving them something that they need http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/help_1

    Help diikuti (tanpa object) -ing saya temukan dengan makna:

    to improve a situation; to make it easier for something to happen
    It helped being able to talk about it. http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/help_1

    Adapula can’t help + -ing yang bermakna idiomatic:

    help verb (STOP YOURSELF)
    can’t/couldn’t help

    B1 If you can’t/couldn’t help something, such as ​acting in a ​particular way or making a ​particular ​remark, you are/were not ​able to ​control or ​stop it:
    It was ​awful, but I couldn’t help ​laughing.
    “Stop ​giggling!” “I can’t help it!”
    I can’t help ​thinking (= my ​true ​feeling is that) she’d be ​better off without him. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/help

    Semoga sedikit rangkumannya membantu ya.

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