Pengertian dan Contoh Kalimat Subject & Predicate

Pengertian Subject dan Predicate

Setiap complete sentence (kalimat yang dapat berdiri sendiri) memiliki subject dan predicate. Subject adalah tentang apa atau siapa yang dibicarakan dalam suatu kalimat atau klausa sedangkan predicate menerangkan sesuatu tentang subject. Adapun subjek dapat berupa orang, hewan, benda, maupun konsep abstrak.

Complete Subject dan Complete Predicate

Setiap complete subject pada dasarnya dibangun oleh satu atau lebih noun atau pronoun dengan/tanpa tambahan modifier(s) yang dapat berupa article (the, an, an), adjective, dan prepositional phrase. Adapun kata benda hasil kombinasi dengan modifier(s) disebut noun phrase. Tambahan lagi, gerund dan infinitive dapat pula menempati posisi subjek.

Complete predicate terdiri dari verb atau compound verb (auxiliary+verb)  dengan/tanpa tambahan modifier(s) dan complement (tambahan kata lain untuk melengkapi makna kalimat). Modifier yang digunakan dapat berupa adverb dan prepositional phrase.  Sedangkan complement dapat berupa direct object jika kata kerja yang digunakan merupakan transitive, atau berupa subject complement jika kata kerja yang digunakan merupakan linking

Beberapa contohnya adalah sebagai berikut.

Keterangan:

  • Complete subject
  • Complete Predicate

Contoh:

  • His new car tax has already been paid by his assistant.
  • Lia and I were eating our lunch on the kitchen table.
  • The very big boarding school in this country was built in 1980.

Simple Subject & Simple Predicate

Simple subject berupa noun atau pronoun tunggal, dengan mengesampingkan modifier(s)-nya. Sedangkan simple predicate berupa verb atau compound verb tunggal.

Contoh KalimatSimple SubjectSimple PredicateKeterangan
His new car tax has already been paid by his assistant.
(Pajak mobil baru dia telah dibayar oleh asistennya.)
taxhas been paidhis new car= (pre)modifier
dimana
his= possessive, new= adjective, car= noun lain;
by his assistant= prepositional phrase
The very big boarding school in this country was built in 1980.
(Sekolah asrama yang sangat besar di negara ini dibangun tahun 1980.)
schoolwas builtthe very big boarding= (pre)modifier;
in this country= (post)modifier berupa prep. phrase;
in 1980= prep. phrase
Open the door!
(Buka pintu!)
“you”openPada kalimat imperative, subjek tidak ditulis karena dianggap sudah cukup dimengerti;
the door= direct object
His Uncle Cal will not arrive on time.
(Paman Cal akan tidak akan tiba tepat waktu.)
Uncle Calwill arrivehis= possessive;
not= adverb;
on time= prep. phrase
There was a hounted house.
(Disana ada rumah berhantu.)
housewasthere= adverb;
haunted= participle;
a= article
Running may be hard for overweight people.
(Lari mungkin sulit untuk orang yang kelebihan berat badan.)
runningmay berunning= gerund;
hard= adjective;
for overweight people= prep. phrase
To travel is a bad idea.
(Bepergian merupakan ide yang buruk.)
to travelisto travel= infinitive;
is= linking verb;
a bad idea= subject complement

Compound Subject & Compound Predicate

Compound subject terdiri dari dua atau lebih noun atau pronoun, tanpa memperhitungkan modifier(s)-nya.

Contoh KalimatCompound SubjectCompound PredicateKeterangan
Lia and Ana were eating our lunch and were discussing abortion on the kitchen table.
(Lia dan saya sedang makan siang dan membahas aborsi di meja dapur.)
Lia, Anawere eating, were discussingand= conjunction;
our lunch, abortion= complement (direct object);
on the kitchen table= prep. phrase
The beautiful woman and her cute daughter arrived late but left early.
(Wanita cantik dan anaknya yang manis tiba terlambat tapi pergi cepat.)
woman, daughterarrived, leftand, but= conjunction;
the, her= determiner;
late, early= adverb

Related Posts:

Semoga penjelasan materi subject dan predicate ini bermanfaat dan mohon maaf jika ada kekurangan.

References:

  1. Subject and Predicate. http://www.sinclair.edu/centers/tlc/pub/handouts_worksheets/english/subject_and_predicate.pdf. Accessed on October 8, 2012.
  2. Subject and Predicate. http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/subjpred.html. Accessed on October 8, 2012.
  3. Predicates, Objects, Complements. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/objects.htm. Accessed on October 8, 2012.
  4. Subject and Predicates. http://homepages.uwp.edu/canary/grammar_text/08-sub-pred.html. Accessed on October 7, 2012.
  5. Subjects & Predicates. http://www.am.dodea.edu/lejeune/BMS/Pelican_docs/documents/SubjectandPredicate.ppt. Accessed on October 7, 2012.
  6. Identifying Infinitives and Participles as Subjects. http://www.nelson.com/highered/common/buscomm/Word/Module%2012.Identifying%20frags%20and%20clauses.doc. Accessed on April 4, 2013.

Posted by Wilma Yulia

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