Direct / Indirect Question: Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh Kalimat, dan Soal

Direct Question

Pengertian Direct Question

Direct question adalah suatu kalimat pertanyaan yang diajukan secara langsung (direct speech) dan diakhiri oleh tanda tanya (question mark).  Kebalikan direct question ialah indirect question.


contoh direct question Bahasa Inggris: Have you ever traveled to a foreign country before?(Pernahkah kamu bepergian ke luar negeri sebelumnya?)

contoh direct question Bahasa Inggris

Direct question ditandai oleh intonasi naik (rising intonation), inverted word order pada auxiliary verb (primary: be, do, have, atau modal: will, would, may, might, can, could, etc) atau linking verb “be” (sebagai main verb) yang mendahului subjek kalimat, dan/atau question word (what, where,when, why, which, who, whom, whose, how) di depan kalimat.

Macam dan Contoh Kalimat Direct Question

  1. Yes-No Question (menggunakan auxiliary atau linking verb untuk meminta jawaban “yes” atau “no”)
    • Have you been to Lombok?
      (Apakah kamu pernah ke lombok?)
    • Do you need some help with studies?
      (Apakah kamu butuh bantuan dengan pelajaran-pelajaranmu?)
    • Is this yours?
      (apa ini milikmu?)
    • Did you find the recent changes in the company’s policies beneficial?
      (Apakah menurutmu perubahan terkini dalam kebijakan perusahaan bermanfaat?)
    • Are you interested in learning a new language?
      (Apakah kamu tertarik mempelajari bahasa baru?)
  2. Wh-Question (menggunakan question word dan auxiliary atau linking verb “be” untuk meminta informasi)
    • Why did you resign from your job?
      (Mengapa kamu berhenti dari pekerjaanmu?)
    • What is your preferred field of work?
      (Bidang pekerjaan apa yang anda sukai?)
    • What inspired you to pursue your current career path?
      (Apa yang menginspirasimu untuk mengejar jalur kariermu saat ini?)
    • Where do you see yourself in five years career-wise?
      (Di mana Anda melihat diri Anda dalam lima tahun mendatang dalam hal karier?)
  3. Alternative Question (menggunakan “or” untuk meminta pendengar untuk memilih)
    • Should I continue to work or return to school?
      (Sebaiknya saya melanjutkan bekerja atau kembali sekolah?)
    • Which route should we take to avoid traffic, the highway or the scenic backroads?
      (Rute mana yang harus kita ambil untuk menghindari kemacetan, jalan raya atau jalan belakang yang indah?)

Lihat juga:

Indirect Question

Pengertian Indirect Question

Indirect question adalah bentuk pernyataan yang mengungkapkan pertanyaan orang lain (reported speech) yang telah dikatakan secara langsung (direct speech) dengan mengubah format pembicaraan tersebut sehingga menjadi lebih jelas, alami, dan efisien bagi pendengarnya. Karena merupakan reported speech, indirect question tidak menggunakan question mark (tanda tanya) di akhir kalimatnya.

Rumus Indirect Question

Berbeda dengan direct question yang subject dan verb-nya bertukar posisi, subject pada indirect question diletakkan sebelum verb. Adapun rumus indirect question pada yes/no question (pertanyaan yang meminta jawaban ya/tidak) dan wh-question (pertanyaan akan informasi) adalah sebagai berikut.

Yes/No Question

Introductory Clause + if/whether + S + V*

Wh- Question

Introductory Clause + Wh-word** + S + V*

Catatan:

*Verb tense pada indirect question disesuaikan dengan versi direct question-nya. Lihat: Aturan Perubahan Verb Tense dan Modal.

**Wh-word terdiri dari: what, who, where, why, when, how, which, dan turunannya.

contoh kalimat indirect question bahasa Inggris dan artinya: She asked if I was a teacher. (Dia bertanya apakah saya seorang guru.)

contoh kalimat indirect question bahasa Inggris dan artinya

Contoh Kalimat Indirect Question

Yes-No Question

  1. direct question

    The teacher asked, “Have you finished your homework?”
    (Sudahkan kamu menyelesaikan PR-mu?)

    indirect question

    The teacher asked the students if they had finished their
    homework.

    Lihat Aturan Perubahan Verb Tense dan Modal.

  2. direct question

    “Did you see my wallet?” asked Gery.
    (Kamu melihat dompetku?)

    indirect question

    Gery wanted to know if I’d seen his wallet.

  3. direct question

    Lia asked, “Are you happy now?”
    (Kamu bahagia sekarang?)

    indirect question

    Lia asked (me) whether I was happy at that time.

    • direct question: now
    • indirect question: at that time

    Lihat Aturan Perubahan Time Reference.

Wh- Question

  1. direct question

    Yogi asked, “Who is that girl?”
    (Siapa gadis itu?)

    indirect question

    Yogi asked (me) who that girl was.

  2. direct question

    Tita asked, “Where does the old man live?”
    (Dimana lelaki tua itu tinggal?)

    indirect question

    Tita asked (me) where the old man lived.

  3. direct question

    Her brother wondered, “Why do you think the book very is interesting?”
    (Mengapa kamu berpikir buku itu sangat menarik?)

    indirect question

    Her brother wondered why she thought the book was interesting.

10 Contoh Soal Indirect Question

Indirect question merupakan bentuk pernyataan yang mengutarakan pertanyaan orang lain yang telah diucapkan secara langsung (direct) dengan mengubah format pertanyaan tersebut agar lebih jelas, alami, dan efisien bagi pendengarnya. Yang mungkin diubah antara lain: word order (subject-verb), pronoun, verb tense, dan time signal.

Pilihlah indirect question yang tepat untuk menggantikan direct question di bawah ini dengan mengetik a atau b.

  1. "Have you been to Japan?" asked Sarah.

    1. Sarah asked if I has been to Japan.
    2. Sarah asked if I had been to Japan.

    Your answer:

  2. The Commercial Account Manager asked, "Did my staff contact you yesterday?"

    1. The Commercial Account Manager wanted to know if his staff had contacted me the previous day.
    2. The Commercial Account Manager wanted to know if his staff has contacted me the previous day.
    3. The Commercial Account Manager wanted to know if his staff has contacted me yesterday.
    4. The Commercial Account Manager wanted to know if his staff had contacted me yesterday.

    Your answer:

  3. Alvin asked, "May I borrow your bike tomorrow?"

    1. Alvin asked whether he may borrow my bike the following day.
    2. Alvin asked whether he might borrow my bike the following day.
    3. Alvin asked whether he might borrow my bike tomorrow.
    4. Alvin asked whether he may borrow my bike tomorrow.

    Your answer:

  4. The man asked, "Can I parked my car here?"

    1. The man asked me if he could parked his car here.
    2. The man asked me if he could parked his car there.
    3. The man asked me if he can parked his car there.
    4. The man asked me if he can parked his car here.

    Your answer:

  5. "Where are your friends eating lunch?" asked the teacher.

    1. The teacher wanted to know where the student's friends were eating lunch.
    2. The teacher wanted to know where the student's friends eating lunch were.

    Your answer:

  6. "When is she going to adopt a cat?" asked Heru.

    1. Heru asked when she was going to adopt a cat.
    2. Heru asked when was she going to adopt a cat.

    Your answer:

  7. Her wife asked "How fast was my husband driving when the police stopped him?"

    1. Her wife asked how fast her husband had been driving when the police stopped him.
    2. Her wife asked how fast her husband has been driving when the police stopped him.

    Your answer:

  8. "Shall I quit my job?" asked the employee.

    1. The employee asked whether she shall quit her job.
    2. The employee asked whether she should quit her job.

    Your answer:

  9. She wondered, "Will money make you happy?"

    1. She wondered if money would make me happy.
    2. She wondered if money makes me happy.

    Your answer:

  10. The little girl wondered, "Why is the ocean salty?"

    1. The little girl wondered why the ocean is salty.
    2. The little girl wondered why is the ocean salty.

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

Javascript diperlukan untuk menjalankan quiz ini.

Lihat juga:

References:

  1. The Question Mark. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/question.htm#indirect. Accessed on February 6, 2013.
  2. Indirect Questions and Embedded Questions. http://www.elc.byu.edu/classes/aoyama/grammar4/aoyg4f05/charts/indirect_embedded_questions.pdf. Accessed on February 6, 2013.
  3. Reported Speech. http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/rules/repspee.htm. Accessed on February 6, 2012.
  4. Reported Speech. http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/sensen/part4/esltips/esl_reported.html. Accessed on February 6, 2012.
  5. WH-Words Questions in English and American Sign Language. http://seattlecentral.edu/faculty/baron/ESL%20class/WH-Word%20questions%20in%20English%20and%20ASL.pptx. Accessed on February 6, 2013.
  6. Direct Question. http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/dirquesterm.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2015.
  7. Direct Question. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/direct-question. Accessed on March 2, 2015.
  8. Indirect Questions. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/flatmates/episode46/languagepoint.shtml. Accessed on March 3, 2015.

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