Appositive (Phrase): Pengertian, Contoh Kalimat, dan Soal

Pengertian Appositive

Appositive adalah kata berupa noun (kata benda) atau pronoun (kata ganti) yang digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan atau menjelaskan noun atau pronoun lain. Kata ini seringkali didampingi oleh modifier (kata yang menerangkan appositive) membentuk appositive phrase. Dengan demikian, frasa ini umumnya berupa noun phrase.

Contoh Appositive [Bold= appositive; Italic= noun/pronoun]

  • Our friend Joe just became a new father. [appositive berupa noun]
  • My brother, a chemical engineer, is very dilligent. [appositive berupa noun phrase]

Posisi Appositive

Appositive biasanya diletakkan setelah noun yang dideskripsikannya, namun mungkin bisa juga diletakkan sebelumnya. Lihat: Delayed Appositive (tidak segera setelah noun).

Contoh Posisi [Bold= appositive; Italic= noun/pronoun]

  • A foremost scientist, Niels Bohr advocated the peaceful use of atomic energy. sebelum noun
    (Seorang ilmuwan terkemuka, Niels Bohr, menggunakan penggunaan damai dari energi atom.)
  • Niels BohrA foremost scientist,  advocated the peaceful use of atomic energy. setelah noun
  • The best-selling car in Indonesia, Toyota Avanza is produced by the Daihatsu manufacturer. sebelum noun
    (Mobil berjualan terbaik di Indonesia, Toyota Avanza, diproduksi oleh pabrikan Daihatsu.)
  • Toyota Avanza, the best-selling car in Indonesia, is produced by the Daihatsu manufacturer. setelah noun

Punctuation dan Appositive

Seperti yang berlaku pada relative clause, adanya punctuation berupa comma (,) atau dashes (–) bila appositive phrase bersifat non-restrictive/non-defining/non-essential. Non-restrictive appositive phrase berarti informasi tambahan yang dibawa oleh frasa tersebut bersifat tidak penting dan dapat dihilangkan.

Contoh Kalimat Restrictive dan Non-Restrictive Appositive Phrase

  • A foremost scientist Niels Bohr advocated the peaceful use of atomic energy.
  • One of the best-selling cars in Indonesia Toyota Avanza is produced by the Daihatsu manufacturer.

Subject (scientist & car) terlalu umum, sehingga appositive (Niels Bohr & Toyota Avanza) yang tidak dapat dihilangkan (essential information). Jika dihilangkan, kalimat menjadi kurang/tidak jelas.

Contoh Kalimat Non-Restrictive Appositive Phrase

  • Niels BohrA foremost scientist, advocated the peaceful use of atomic energy.
  • Toyota Avanza, one of the best-selling cars in Indonesia, is produced by the Daihatsu manufacturer.

Subject (Niels Bohr & Toyota Avanza) dapat dimengerti sehingga appositive (a foremost scientist & one of the best-selling car in Indonesia) sesungguhnya dapat dihilangkan tanpa menyebabkan makna kalimat menjadi tidak jelas.

Frasa Lain yang Menjadi Appositive

Selain noun phrase, frasa-frasa lain seperti gerund (phrase) dan infinitive (phrase) dapat pula beraksi sebagai appositive. Hal ini disebabkan karena gerund dan infinitive merupakan verbal, yaitu suatu kata yang dibentuk dari kata kerja, namun berfungsi sebagai part of speech lain (noun).

Contoh Kalimat Appositive Phrase dan Artinya

  1. His hobby, sailing, takes a lot of time.
    (Hobinya, berlayar, memakan banyak waktu.) gerund
  2. His hobby, sailing across the Pacific ocean, takes a lot of time.
    (Hobinya, berlayar menyeberangi Samudera Pasifik, memakan banyak waktu.) gerund phrase
  3. His dream, to win, has made him work harder.
    (Mimpinya, untuk menang, telah membuatnya bekerja keras.) infinitive
  4. His dream, to win the tender, has made him work harder.
    (Mimpinya, untuk menang tender, telah membuatnya bekerja keras.) infinitive phrase

Menggabungkan Beberapa Kalimat menjadi Appositive

Dua kalimat mungkin dapat dijadikan satu kalimat yang lebih panjang dengan menjadikan salah satunya appositive dan sisanya sebagai kalimat yang akan menerima appositive (main clause).

Kalimat-kalimat tersebut dapat disatukan jika memiliki kesamaan elemen yang disebutkannya di dalam kalimat, yaitu noun (kata benda). Noun yang sama tersebut di dalam kalimat yang akan dijadikan appositive berperan sebagai subject, sedangkan di dalam kalimat yang akan dijadikan main clause dapat berperan sebagai subject atau object.

Selain itu, kalimat yang akan dijadikan appositive haruslah kalimat yang menggunakan kata kerja berupa verb be (is, are, was, were) dan diikuti subject complement (deskripsi subjek) berupa noun yang akan dijadikan appositive nantinya. Adapun main clause tidak harus menggunakan verb be.

Kalimat yang akan Dijadikan Appositive:

S + verb be (is, are, was, were) + noun (phrase)

Appositive:

S + verb be (is, are, was, were) + noun (phrase)

Posisi appositive cenderung dekat dengan noun yang diterangkannya. Jika noun tersebut berada di awal kalimat, appositive mungkin mendahului atau segera setelahnya. Antara appositive dan bagian kalimat sisanya dipisahkan oleh comma (,) atau dashes (–) jika informasi yang dibawanya non-essential (tidak mempengaruhi makna kalimat jika dihilangkan).

Contoh Kalimat dengan Appositive

Berikut beberapa contoh kalimat dengan appositive hasil penggabungan beberapa kalimat.

  1. tanpa appositive

    • The Eiffel Tower is a symbol of Paris and France.
    • The Eiffel Tower has three levels for visitors.

    dengan appositive

    The Eiffel Tower, a symbol of Paris and France, has three levels for visitors.
    (menara Eiffel, simbol Paris dan Perancis, mempunyai tiga tingkatan untuk pengunjungnya.) appositive mendeskripsikan The Eiffel Tower

  2. tanpa appositive

    • Anna is a disciplined woman.
    • Anna is a a well-organized woman.
    • Anna has been promoted to Human Resources manager.

    dengan appositive

    A disciplined, well-organized woman, Anna has been promoted to Human Resources manager.
    (Disiplin dan teratur, Anna telah dipromosikan menjadi manager SDM.) appositive mendeskripsikan Anna

  3. tanpa appositive

    • Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist.
    • Alexander Graham Bell was an inventor.
    • Alexander Graham Bell was an engineer.
    • Alexander Graham Bell was an innovator.
    • Alexander Graham Bell returned to Boston in 1873.
    • Alexander Graham Bell became a profesor at the Boston University in 1874.

    dengan appositive

    An eminent scientist, an inventor, an engineer, and an innovator, Alexander Graham Bell returned to Boston in 1873 and became a profesor at the Boston University in 1874.
    (Ilmuan terkemuka, penemu, enjinir, dan inovator, Alexander Graham Bell kembali ke Boston pada tahun 1873 dan menjadi profesor di Boston University tahun 1874.) appositive mendeskripsikan Alexander Graham Bell dan main clause berbentuk compound dengan conjunction “and”

Adjective Clause dan Appositive

Adjective clause dan appositive (phrase) sama-sama memberikan informasi tentang noun (kata benda), baik penting maupun kurang penting. Bedanya adjective clause berupa klausa yang diawali oleh relative pronoun (who, which, that, etc), sedangkan appositive berupa noun (phrase).

Adjective clause dapat diubah menjadi appositive, namun hanya klausa yang kata kerjanya menggunakan verb beis, are, was, dan were. dan diikuti subject complement (kata yang berfungsi menerangkan subjek kalimat) berupa noun (phrase).

Adjective Clause:

relative pronoun + be (is/are/was/were) + noun (phrase)

Caranya adalah dengan menghilangkan relative pronoun dan verb be hingga hanya menyisakan noun (phrase).

Appositive (Phrase):

relative pronoun + verb (is/are/was/were) + noun (phrase)

Contoh Kalimat Adjective Clause dan Appositive

  1. Benjamin Franklin, who was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, became a successful newspaper editor in Philadelphia.

    Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, became a successful newspaper editor in Philadelphia.
    (Benjamin Franklin, satu dari pendiri Amerika Serikat, menjadi seorang editor koran yang sukses di Philadelphia.)

  2. My brother, who is an engineer, works at the water treatment plant.

    My brother, an engineer, works at the water treatment plant.
    (Saudara saya, seorang enjinir, bekerja di instalasi pengolahan air.)

  3. We have good shovel and pruning shears, which are essential gardening tools.

    We have good shovel and pruning shears, essential gardening tools.
    (Kami punya sekop dan gunting bagus yang merupakan peralatan berkebun yang penting.)

Delayed Appositive

Delayed appositive adalah appositive (noun, pronoungerund, atau infinitive yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda, untuk mendeskripsikan atau mengidentifikasi noun atau pronoun lain) yang tidak berada langsung di sebelah noun atau pronoun yang dideskripsikannya.

Contoh Kalimat Delayed Appositive

This is unethical behaviour, coming into work late and leaving early.
(Ini perilaku tidak etis, datang bekerja terlambat dan pulang lebih cepat.)

Coming into work late and leaving early (gerund phrase) merupakan delayed appositive yang mendeskripsikan demonstrative pronoun “this”.

Delayed Appositive pada Extraposition

Delayed appositive kadang-kadang digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan dummy word “it” pada extraposition (konstruksi dimana clause atau phrase yang berfungsi sebagai subjek pindah ke akhir kalimat dan digantikan di posisi depan kalimat oleh dummy word).

Contoh Kalimat Delayed Appositive di Extraposition

  1. It is urged to combine environmental and development goals.
    (Mengombinasikan target lingkungan dan pengembangan sangat diperlukan.)
  2. It is important that you have your blood sugar level checked regularly.
    (Penting untuk kamu mengecek kadar gula darah secara teratur.)

Keterangan:

To combine environmental and development goals  dan that you have your blood sugar level checked regularly merupakan delayed appositive yang mendeskripsikan pronoun “it”.

Contoh Soal Appositive Phrase

Appositive (phrase) merupakan kata yang umumnya berupa noun (phrase) untuk mendeskripsikan atau menjelaskan noun lain. Posisinya di suatu kalimat biasanya dekat dengan noun yang dideskripsikannya, sebelum atau segera setelah noun tersebut, namun tidak menutup kemungkinan di posisi lain. Appositive mungkin diapit koma jika informasi yang dibawanya bersifat non-restrictive (dapat dihilangkan tanpa mengubah maksud kalimat).

Tentukan yang mana appositive pada setiap kalimat pada soal-soal di bawah ini dengan mengetik a, b, atau c. Jika menurutmu tidak ada, kamu dapat memilih “none” dengan mengetik d.

  1. Cut Meutia, an Indonesian national hero from Aceh, was born in 1870.

    1. Cut Meutia
    2. an Indonesian national hero from Aceh
    3. was born in 1870
    4. none

    Your answer:

  2. My friend, who was a successful high school student, has created a high-quality website.

    1. who was a successful high school student
    2. has created a high-quality website
    3. my friend
    4. none

    Your answer:

  3. I just left the hotel after two nights, a very clean and comfortable place.

    1. a very clean and comfortable place
    2. the hotel
    3. I just left the hotel after two nights
    4. none

    Your answer:

  4. You should take your umbrella today, which is an important tool to protect from rain.

    1. which is an important tool to protect from rain
    2. you should take your umbrella today
    3. your umbrella
    4. none

    Your answer:

  5. A truly beautiful island, Bali attracts many foreign tourists every year.

    1. Bali attracts many foreign tourists every year
    2. a truly beautiful island
    3. Bali
    4. none

    Your answer:

  1. A responsible, hard-working person, Lukas will become the best candidate for the position.

    1. a responsible
    2. hardworking person
    3. Lukas
    4. Lukas will become the best candidate for the position
    5. a responsible, hard-working person
    6. none

    Your answer:

  2. My sister Nurma is getting married soon.

    1. my sister
    2. Nurma
    3. none

    Your answer:

  3. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal Emperor of India, spent more than twenty years to build the Taj Mahal, a white marble mausoleum located in Agra.

    1. Shah Jahan
    2. the fifth Mughal Emperor of India & a white marble
    3. mausoleum located in Agra
    4. the fifth Mughal Emperor of India
    5. a white marble mausoleum located in Agra
    6. spent more than twenty years to build the Taj Mahal

    Your answer:

  4. The commonly misspelled word miscellaneous is often used as an adjective.

    1. the commonly misspelled word
    2. miscellaneous
    3. an adjective
    4. none

    Your answer:

  5. The third highest mountain in the world, Kangchenjunga, is located in Nepal.

    1. is located in Nepal
    2. Kangchenjunga
    3. the third highest mountain in the world
    4. none

    Your answer:

Correct
Incorrect

Javascript diperlukan untuk menjalankan quiz ini.

Lihat juga:

References:

  1. Appositive Phrases. http://www.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/cl-appos.htm. Accessed on November 9, 2012.
  2. The Appositive Phrase. http://www.sinclair.edu/centers/tlc/pub/handouts_worksheets/grammar_punctuation_writing/phrase_appositive.pdf. Accessed on November 9, 2012.
  3. Nouns. http://www.towson.edu/ows/nouns.htm. Accessed on November 9, 2012.
  4. Appositive Phrase. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm#appositive. Accessed on November 9, 2012.
  5. Appositives. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/596/01/. Accessed on November 9, 2012.
  6. How to Build Sentences with Appositives. http://grammar.about.com/od/basicsentencegrammar/a/buildappositive.htm. Accessed on February 16, 2015.
  7. Building and Revising Sentences with Appositives. http://grammar.about.com/od/sentencecombinin1/a/Building-And-Revising-Sentences-With-Appositives.htm. Accessed on February 16, 2015.
  8. Appositives. https://www.uncg.edu/eng/writingcenter/handouts/APPOSITIVES.pdf. Accessed on February 15, 2015.
  9. Nouns. http://www.towson.edu/ows/nouns.htm. Accessed on February 12, 2015.
  10. Verbals. http://www.towson.edu/ows/verbals.html. Accessed on February 12, 2015.
  11. Grammar Question. http://en.allexperts.com/q/English-Second-Language-1815/2008/7/Grammar-Question-1.htm. Accessed on February 12, 2015.
  12. Building and Revising Sentences with Appositives. http://grammar.about.com/od/sentencecombinin1/a/Building-And-Revising-Sentences-With-Appositives_2.htm. Accessed on February 18, 2015.
  13. Practice in Identifying Appositives. http://grammar.about.com/od/basicsentencegrammar/a/practiceappos.htm. Accessed on February 18, 2015.
  14. Answer : Appositive Exercise. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/2/4/11/answer. Accessed on February 18, 2015.

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