Pengertian, Penggunaan, dan Contoh Kalimat Present Participle

Soal Participle

Pengertian Present Participle

Present participle adalah kata yang dibentuk dengan menambahkan suffix (akhiran) -ing pada base form verb (bentuk dasar kata kerja ~ bare infinitive).

Lihat juga:

Kadang-kadang terjadi doubling pada konsonan di akhir kata kerja tersebut.

Contoh doubling pada konsonan:

  • run+ing —> running
  • swim+ing —> swimming

Present participle merupakan satu dari lima verb form yang dimiliki oleh verb, baik regular maupun irregular verb.

Contoh verb form:

Base FormPresent TensePast TensePresent ParticiplePast Participle
singsing(s)sangsingingsung
readread(s)readreadingread

Fungsi Present Participle

Secara umum, participle dapat berfungsi sebagai sebagai verb atau verbal.

Present Participle sebagai Verb

Sebagai verbpresent participle digunakan sebagai komponen dari multiple verbs bersama auxiliary verb [aux+present participle] untuk membentuk progressive/continuous dan perfect continous tense. Present participle juga digunakan pada passive voice dari continuous tense, baik present maupun past. Bentuk passive pada perfect continuous sebaiknya dihindari karena rumit dan tidak elegan.

Contoh Present Participle sebagai Verb

VerbContoh Kalimat Present ParticipleKeterangan
Present ContinuousHe is smiling to you.
(Dia sedang tersenyum padamu.)
is = auxiliary
Present
Perfect
Continuous
Those toddlers have been sleeping for an hour.
(Balita-balita itu telah tidur selama satu jam.)
have, been = auxiliary
Past continuousThe workers were queuing for their salaries.
(Para pekerja sedang mengantri gaji.)
were = auxiliary
Past perfect continuousThe labors had been demonstrating for two hours before you came.)
(Para buruh telah berdemonstrasi selama dua jam sebelum kamu datang.)
had, been = auxiliary
Future continuousShe will be working at the office.
(Dia akan sedang bekerja di kantor.)
will, be = auxiliary
Future perfect continuousThat cat will have been sleeping long.
(Kucing itu akan telah tidur lama.)
will, have, been = auxiliary
Passive
Present
Continuous
The book is being read by him.
(Buku tersebut sedang dibaca olehnya.)
is = auxiliary,
being = present participle dari auxiliary be
Passive Past continuousYour car was being washed at this time yesterday.
(Mobilmu sedang dicuci pada saat ini kemarin.)
was = auxiliary,
being = present participle dari auxiliary be

Present Participle sebagai Verbal

Sebagai verbalparticiple berfungsi sebagai adjective. Sebagai kata sifat, verbal ini berfungsi memodifikasi/menjelaskan noun. Adapula bentuk verb+ing yang lain yang berfungsi sebagai noun, yaitu gerund. Walaupun sama-sama berbentuk verb+ing, namun penggunaan keduanya sangat berbeda. Penggunaan present participle sebagai adjective dapat dilihat pada noun phrase dan reduced adjective clause (active voice). Pada noun phrase, noun yang bertindak sebagai pelaku aksi dirangkai dengan present participle.
Misalnya pada kalimat:

  1. The rooster annoys. 
  2. The fact interested me. 

dapat dibuat menjadi kalimat dengan present participle:

  1. It is a annoying rooster atau The annoying rooster eats a lot.
  2. It was an interesting fact atau The interesting fact was published.

Dengan demikian annoying dan interesting merupakan present participle yang menjelaskan rooster dan fact.

Pada reduksi adjective clauserelative pronoun dan verb to be (jika ada) dihapus serta ditambahkan -ing pada active verb (jika berbentuk present atau past, bukan progressive) sehingga membentuk present participle (phrase).

Contoh Present Participle pada Reduced Adjective Clause

Contoh adjective clauseContoh reduced adjective Clause
The woman who works as an english teacher is very beautiful.
(Wanita yang bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris tersebut sangat cantik.)
The woman who works+ing as an english teacher is very beautiful.

menjadi:

The woman working as an english teacher is very beautiful

The boy who is sleeping is my brother.
(Anak laki-laki yang sedang tidur adalah saudaraku.)
The boy who is sleeping+ing is my brother.

menjadi:

The boy sleeping is my brother.

Keterangan:

Working dan sleeping merupakan present participle yang didapat melalui reduced adjective clause dimana berfungsi menerangkan woman dan boy.

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Table of Contents:

  1. Participle
  2. Present Participle
  3. Past Participle
  4. Participial Phrase
  5. Participial Adjective

Exercises:

Semoga penjelasan materi present participle ini bermanfaat dan mohon maaf jika ada kekurangan.

References:

  1. Adjectives and Adverbs: Using Participles as Adjectives. http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/reading-writing/on-line/particip.html. Accessed on December 21, 2012.
  2. Present Participle. http://www.jccc.edu/files/pdf/writing-center/present-participle.pdf. Accessed on December 21, 2012.
  3. Participles. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/627/02/. Accessed on November 25, 2012.
  4. Participles: “ing” and “ed” endings. http://writingcenter.tamu.edu/2006/composing-process/grammar-composing-process/participles-%E2%80%9C-ing%E2%80%9D-and-%E2%80%9C-ed%E2%80%9D-endings/. Accessed on November 25, 2012.
  5. Participial Adjectives. http://faculty.washington.edu/marynell/grammar/partadj.html. Accessed on November 25, 2012.
  6. Present Participle. http://www.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/v-prespt.htm. Accessed on November 25, 2012.
  7. Participles. http://www.monmouth.edu/uploadedFiles/Campus_Life/Writing_Center/Participles.pdf. Accessed on December 21, 2012.
  8. The Participle. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/participle.htm. Accessed on November 25, 2012.

Posted by Wilma Yulia (Ms.)

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18 thoughts on “Pengertian, Penggunaan, dan Contoh Kalimat Present Participle”

  1. 1. The girl who was asked by me is beautiful = The girl asked by me is beautiful. (pasive)
    2.The girl who asked me is beautiful. (aktif) u/ kalimat ini pakai V2 apakah kl “who”nya di drop betuknya sperti ini = The girl asked me is beautiful. Tlong pnjelasannya mba. Dan jlaskan mna yg salah..?

  2. A. The book that has been given is mine = The book given is mine.
    Apa bedanya sama B. The book that was given is mine = The book given is mine.

    tlong penjelasannya mba thx.

    1. Wilma Yulia says:

      kenapa harus direduksi kalo akan membuat perfect aspect-nya menjadi hilang?

  3. Contoh dalam bentuk artikel/cerita yang menggunakan kalimat present participle itu bagaimana ya?

    1. Wilma Yulia says:

      Present participle digunakan sebagai adjective dan verb Hizkia. Di verb bisa di continuous tense, perfect continuous tense, passive – continuous tense, reduced adjective clause.

      Tigers are very adaptable in their hunting techniques. Although they prefer to kill by attacking the neck, they do not do so when they recognize it is inappropriate. A large crocodile might bite down on a swimming tiger, which will immediately blind the reptile by striking it in the eyes. A crocodile’s neck is covered with thick amored skin, so the tiger will instead flip the animal over and eviscerate its soft belly. …

      Three subspecies of tiger have all gone extinct in the last 80 years. The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) was purposefully hunted to extinction in Bali due to its cultural status as evil. The Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) was hunted to extinction, although its numbers had been dwindling due to habitat loss to coffee and rubber plantations. http://listverse.com/2012/09/10/50-unusual-facts-about-tigers/

  4. Semuanya sangat-sangat bermanfaat, terimakasih banyak ya

    1. Wilma Yulia says:

      Sama-sama Dhant.. makasih uda berkunjung :)

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